Alternative concept, presented in 'MATTER (Re-examined)', explains all physical phenomena related to matter, using just a single foundational assumption that 'Substance is fundamental and matter alone provides substance to all real entities'. Only one type of basic matter-particle - 'Quantum of matter' - derived from this assumption is required to explain all of physical reality in universe. Quanta of matter form the all-encompassing universal medium that pervades entire space, outside 3D matter-particles. Author explains a wide array of physical phenomena from origin of 3D matter to gravity and subatomic interactions to cosmological events, using but simple mechanical interactions of quanta of matter. There is no more any need to envisage actions at a distance through empty space or to invoke irrational assumptions like imaginary particles, diversity of natural forces, mass-energy equivalence, constancy of light's speed, dual nature of electric charge, singularities, big bang, etc. using complex mathematics. This concept can radically alter our understanding of physical universe and at the same time, explain complex physical phenomena using simple 'Cause and Effect' relationships. This book is an enlarged version of pre-published book by same author titled 'Hypothesis on MATTER'.


A longstanding desire of scientists is to have a unified theory, which is applicable under all conditions to matter, in all its forms. This desire clearly indicates that all is not well about current physical theories. Hence, the search for a new theory. But contemporary science has advanced too far on irrational assumptions, illogical interactions and imaginary particles. Even a very small correction, attempted in its fundamental area, is bound to topple the cart of science. Therefore, very few persons dare to suggest such changes. All current searches are, in some or other way, based on or continuation of contemporary theories. Searches based on these 'not very correct theories' cannot, naturally, yield a better theory. In order to find a better theory, we need to search outside orthodox realm of physics. Any one, who dares to move outside the limits of orthodox physics, in search for a better concept, is immediately branded as heretics and is isolated from main-stream physics. Their work is not considered worthwhile. This tendency, on the part of establishment, is the main hindrance towards a unified theory.

I wish to present a radically different approach, based on an alternative concept, in the hope that at least few scientists may read and evaluate it with unbiased mind. This concept explains all physical phenomena related to matter, by using same principles, under same basic laws and under all conditions. Concept, given in book 'MATTER (Re-examined)', provides simple and logical explanation to all physical phenomena, related to matter. This book includes explanations on most of unexplained or incorrectly explained phenomena. A logical system has some elementary postulations/assumptions, on which its reasoning is based. Whole of this concept is developed from a single assumption that 'substance is fundamental and matter alone provides substance to all real entities' and on only one type of postulated particles - 'Quanta of matter' - with definite properties, derived from the above given assumption. Quanta of matter are the only unstructured matter-particles in nature. Quanta of matter fill entire space. No other assumed effects or virtual particles are needed to explain any physical phenomenon of matter or its apparent interactions. Three-dimensional matter is inert and it cannot act or interact through empty space. Therefore, there is a real entity interlinking all 3D matter-particles in space, making it possible for their interaction through a universal medium. Both, 3D matter-bodies and universal medium are made of quanta of matter. All 'natural forces' are different manifestation of the same basic effort. Since 3D matter is inert, basic effort is a product of universal medium. Efforts (forces) and their interactions are nothing but simple mechanical movements of quanta of matter in universal medium.

Aim of this book is to convey an alternative concept, which after further development, may lead towards a unified theory of basic physical laws. This concept is not based on or developed as a continuation of any of contemporary theories. Its development has resulted in many conclusions, which are logical and simple but are contrary to current beliefs. These may, at first sight, appear bizarre or unorthodox. Reader is forewarned not to be discouraged by such conclusions. By following chain of reasoning, followed in the book, you will shortly find them more logical, simple and better suited for phenomena in general. Readers are humbly requested to read through whole text, sequentially at least once, without paying much attention to conclusions or trying to compare this concept with existing theories. Once you are acquainted with chain of reasoning, you may evaluate and compare conclusions of this book with any other theory. Any part of this concept, taken in isolation without having a general idea of concept, may not make much sense. Since this concept is based on properties and behavior of unstructured matter , it is necessary to understand postulated 'quantum of matter' (given in chapter TWO) before attempting to read explanations on other physical phenomena of matter. Most essential requirements for readers, to follow through this text, are patience and open-mind. I beg pardon of esteemed reader in advance for not adhering to well-established theories by great scientists.

Few controversial conclusions are listed below:

1. Matter is the sole real entity in nature. It provides substance for objective reality and positive existence to all physical entities, including a material universal medium.
2. Matter is discontinuous and in its unstructured state, has a tendency to reduce its existence to minimum spatial dimensions. A very small bit of unstructured matter (that forms a quantum of matter) strives to remain in single spatial dimension.
3. Fundamentally, there is only one type of effort (commonly known as 'force') and it is of push nature. 'Natural forces' are different manifestations of this effort. 'Force' is the rate of work-done with respect to distance moved.
4. There are no actions at a distance through empty space. An all-encompassing universal medium fills entire space outside basic 3D matter-particles and is in direct contact with all basic 3D matter-particles in nature. Universal medium is made of quanta of matter and its matter-density equals that of 3D matter, yet it is flexible as an ideal fluid.
5. Universal medium is inherently under compression, homogeneous and anisotropic simultaneously, isotropic and serene. It provides an absolute reference in space. Tendency of universal medium to maintain homogeneity causes gravitation.
6. Structural deformation of universal medium is work; stress due to deformation is energy. Inertia and gravitation are properties of universal medium. Deformed regions in universal medium, depending on nature of their distortions, may be classified into gravitational, electric, electrostatic, magnetic, nuclear or inertial fields.
7. Gravitation is enormously stronger compared to other manifestations of effort. Gravitation converts functional entities (quanta of matter) into 3D matter. All other manifestations of 'natural forces' are rooted on gravitation. Gravitational (apparent) attraction between macro bodies is, relatively, a minor byproduct of gravitational actions. Under certain conditions, it is also possible for magnitude of gravitational attraction to increase as distance between two objects increases.
8. A macro body gains matter-content and associated energy during cooling and loses them on heating. Heat is a process of losing matter-content and associated energy rather than a form of (undefined) energy. Energy cannot be equated to motion.
9. Corpuscles of light (photons) have dual nature. It has both matter-content and associated electromagnetic wave-like disturbance in universal medium. A photon has a segmented disc-shaped matter-core, which moves at a constant linear speed and spins (about a diameter) at a speed proportional to its matter-content. It has electromagnetic wave-like (moving) distortions in universal medium, associated with it.
10. Corpuscular nature of light (photons) can explain all phenomena of light. A photon, being a matter-body, is affected by gravitational (apparent) attraction. Despite being a matter-body, photon has no mass in the direction of its linear motion, because no effort in the direction of its linear motion can accelerate it.
11. Light is radiated at a constant critical (linear) speed (with respect to surrounding universal medium) in any region of space and it is the ultimate linear speed of motion, limited by the ability of the universal medium to transfer distortions in it. Attempt to increase linear speed of light increases its frequency (matter-content) rather than its linear speed. Attempt to reduce linear speed of light reduces its frequency (matter-content) rather than its linear speed.
12. Photons are the basic 3D matter-particles. They form all other primary and fundamental 3D matter-particles. Two complimentary photons form a biton. Two bitons form a tetron. Three bitons form either an electron or a positron. Spherical shell, formed by tetrons is a neutron. Spherical shell formed by tetrons about a positron is a proton. Two identical spherical shells formed by tetrons about a positron is a deuteron.
13. Mechanical stability of spinning nucleus is the sole criteria for formation of atomic nucleus. Shape of atomic nucleus (in larger atoms) is tubular, with different girth at different sections.
14. Electric charges are relative references of electric field. They are synonymous with poles of a magnet. Every electric field has both positive and negative electric charges.
15. There are no translational motions of fundamental particles during an electric current. Interaction between two electric fields depends also on the distance between them. At greater distance, electric fields behave like magnetic fields.
16. No planet can orbit around a moving central body, in closed geometrical path. External effort, acting on a linearly moving-spinning body, causes tides. Tides are mere changes in the shape of the linearly moving-spinning body.
17. Part of central force on a planet causes its spin motion. Every spinning planet accelerates in its spin motion. Slowing of terrestrial spin speed is a myth. Spin motion of a planet is with respect to its spin axis. With respect to external reference, planets have negligible spin speed.
18. There are no 'singularities'. Physical laws are equally applicable throughout the universe, under all conditions. Magnitudes of natural constants in any region of space depend on the nature of universal medium in that region. Except their very large size, 'black holes' are ordinary macro bodies without mysterious properties.
19. Extent of universe is limited by ability of observer to gather information. On a larger scale, the universe is in steady state and infinite in extent. Constant recycling of matter maintains entropy of universe within limits.
20. Electromagnetic interaction between halos keeps stable galaxies away from each other. No need for 'cosmological constant' or 'big-bang'.
21. Very large macro bodies radiate matter and associated energy by gravitational collapse alone. No need for nuclear fusion, on stars, for radiation from them.
22. Terrestrial magnetism is formed by secondary-electric fields of free-floating atoms in planet's fluid surface.
23. And many more...

Logical development of this concept (based on a single assumption that 'substance is fundamental and matter alone provides substance to all real entities') and following strict cause and effect relation, provides all the above conclusions.
Links to first five chapters of book are available for free download. Reader may evaluate chain of reasoning, used to develop this concept, from these chapters. Read 'ARTICLES' to sample how this concept suits to explain (logically) various physical phenomena.

You may evaluate this concept after seeing the pointers given in article 'Problems in contemporary physics' at Problems_In_Contemporary_Physics to understand how most of mysterious problems in physics disappear.

With Regards,
Nainan K. Varghese

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